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Norman James Mackay

Norm was an only child, born in Balmain, Sydney in 1923, and educated at Cranbrook School from where he matriculated in 1940. Being too young to be accepted at university, he worked in a pharmacy for a year and, on turning 18, joined the RAAF in 1941. After initial training in Deniliquin, he was sent to the UK for further training where he joined an RAF fighter squadron manned by Australians.

Returning to Australia after the war, Norm attended Sydney University under the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme and graduated with Honours in geology. Joining the Bureau of Mineral Resources on graduation, for the first two years he was based in Canberra, but spending half of each year mapping in the Northern Territory with John Sullivan, first at Brocks Creek and later at Rum Jungle. While Norm was at Brocks Creek, Sullivan invited two Sydney girls, who were holidaying in Darwin, to visit the camp at Brocks Creek for a barbecue. Thus it was that Norm met Wilma Lange.

Back in Canberra, Norm started to make his record-breaking trips to Sydney, and Wilma! They were married in early 1952 and with the prospect of spending the early years of marriage in a hostel in Canberra, it was not difficult to accept a posting to Wau in New Guinea where a house was provided.

As Government Resident Geologist in Wau, Norm's time was divided between advising prospectors and miners, keeping an eye on mining operations — Wau was near the Kainantu goldfields — and making mapping traverses into the highlands. On these traverses Norm would be accompanied by about 20 carriers and would walk mainly along river banks, or in the river itself where outcrop was best. A major such project was a reconnaissance survey of the Markham and upper Ramu rivers.

After three years in Wau, Norm was appointed Senior Resident Geologist in Darwin attached to the Northern Territory Administration. The work here included supervision of geologists in Darwin and Alice Springs, inspection of prospects, some involving drilling programs, and location of water bores for various station properties. On one occasion a BMR vehicle broke down in the middle of the Daly River basin and, with no means of communication (they only had a small radio receiver), the geologist left his field assistant with the vehicle and walked 30 km across limestone country to the Stuart Highway, arriving completely exhausted and dehydrated. Norm was informed and immediately sprang into action, asking the local ABC radio station to broadcast a message so that the field assistant would know help was on its way and then organising and joining a plane to locate the vehicle. All went well from there except that the incident was broadcast on the national ABC news and Norm had to explain later to the Director of the BMR why he had to first learn of the incident on the national news!

Norm and family returned to Canberra after five years in Darwin but were soon on the move again, to Perth, where Norm had accepted a position in the Geological Survey of Western Australia as deputy to Joe Lord. After helping Joe reorganise the survey, the nickel boom saw Norm join Anaconda as Perth manager. The situation with Anaconda was not very satisfactory so, with the opportunity to spend more time in the field, he set up as a consultant, mainly with Jones Mining and North Kalgurli Mines.

In 1975, Norm and Wilma took a lease over an area where a road grader had disturbed a pegmatite containing emeralds near Wonder well on Riverina station, about 64 km west of Menzies. Together with Peter Goodeve and Frank Trask they formed Menzies Emeralds — it was more of a hobby than a business: Wilma did a course in gemmology and Norm learned how to cut, facet and polish stones (which became a hobby throughout his retirement). Emeralds were sold and some were exported to Israel in rough form — it was a successful and fun venture for many years.

In his retirement Norm remained a keen golfer; he loved a chat or discussion on almost anything and was always a very welcome presence, with Wilma, at our "golden oldie" lunches.
The death of his champion golfer son, Roger, in 2002, hit Norm very hard and his health seemed to deteriorate from then, but his good humour lasted to the end. Norm died on 18 March 2009 and is survived by Wilma and daughter Christine.
PETER DUNN with help from WILMA and Norm's friend PHIL RYAN
TAG #153, December 2009

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I was born in Hobart, Tasmania in the mid-thirties, went to the Friends’ School, and then onto the University of Tasmania to undertake a science degree in 1953. I studied primarily Geology and Chemistry, doing an honours year in Geology, in particular involving mapping just north of Hobart in the Bridgewater-Pontville area. Professor Carey was the head of the Geology Department at that time, so his enthusiasm and wide view of world geology and continental drift, were important to me as a young undergraduate. In 1957 I went to the Australian National University (ANU) to do a PhD under Dr Germaine Joplin in the Department of Geophysics, headed by Professor J.C. Jaeger. My topic was the mapping, petrology and geochemistry of the Red Hill Intrusion, south of Hobart, just west of Margate and Snug. This intrusion is one of many bodies of tholeiitic magma in the near flatlying Permo-Triassic sediments, now shown to be of Jurassic age. The main attraction of this body was that many years before a student mapping the area had discovered very silicic rocks in the upper part of Red Hill, and recognized that these rocks were related to a much more mafic intrusion. My studies, completed in 1960, showed conclusively that the granophyres in the upper part of Red Hill were in a high part of the dolerite intrusion and were undoubtedly differentiates of the mafic magma. A number of papers resulted from these investigations.
With the encouragement of Prof. Jaeger I received a CSIRO postdoctoral fellowship, with the intention to go to University of California at the Berkeley campus to become familiar with the techniques and applications of the K/Ar isotopic dating method under Drs Garniss Curtis and Jack Evernden in the Department of Geology. Curtis and Evernden had set up this laboratory with the assistance of Dr John Reynolds in the Department of Physics, who had designed and built a revolutionary mass spectrometer with a glass envelope. This enabled argon and other noble gas measurements to be made for the first time by closing off the machine to its pumps and then admitting the purified noble gas into the machine, now operated statically, for isotopic analysis. Thus, at Berkeley, a revolution in the dating technique was occurring, as much smaller samples than previously could be measured. In 1961, I was appointed as a Research Fellow in Jaeger’s department in Canberra, where I spent most of my career until my formal retirement at the end of year 2000. In 2001 I was appointed an Emeritus Professor in the ANU. The majority of my time was involved with the new K/Ar laboratory in ANU, originally set up by visitor Evernden and Dr John Richards, the latter a member of Jaeger’s department. I joined Richards, a chemist, in the K/Ar laboratory late in 1961, having spent a month collecting samples of volcanic rocks from the accessible high islands of the Hawaiian chain, from Kauai to the big island of Hawaii over a distance of ~530 km, on the way back to Australia. Most people at the time were very pessimistic about dating such young rocks. For many years it had been recognized that the volcanoes of the Hawaiian island chain were progressively older to the NNW, as current volcanism was confined to the SE part of the big island, with the oldest volcano, Kohala, at the northern part of the big island extinct, and the islands to the NW all extinct and progressively more deeply eroded. It turned out that many of the volcanic rocks yielded excellent, reproducible, K/Ar ages, and I was able to quantify the rate of migration of volcanism along the chain at ~10 cm/year, as well as providing considerable information on the age of individual edifices. This work helped to confirm Tuzo Wilson’s hotspot model for the origin of volcanic island chains. The ages ranged from about 0.4 Ma in Kohala to about 4.4 Ma in Kauai for the shield-building volcanism, the latter just over 500 km NNW of the active volcano of Kilauea to the SSE on the big island of Hawaii. The reason for this surprising ability to measure ages on these quite youthful volcanic rocks was simply because the amount of atmospheric argon in well-crystallized, unaltered igneous rocks was much lower than extrapolations from materials then used for dating, such as biotite mica, had suggested, allowing the radiogenic argon to be much more easily detected. Subsequent work on other Pacific island chains, including the Society, Austral and Marquesas island chains, done mainly through Robert Duncan’s efforts in my laboratory, showed a general concordance of rates and directions of migration of volcanism, providing evidence that the island chains were relatively good recorders of plate motions. Subsequent GPS measurements have shown that rates of motion recorded by volcanism in island chains is probably only an approximation, because the volcanic rocks used for the dating came from above sea level, near the summits of much larger edifices, so the ages may not truly reflect the time of the major building of the volcano. The results possibly are also only approximate, because the fixed nature of the source in the mantle below the moving plate may be somewhat questionable.
The Hawaiian K/Ar data were also combined with palaeomagnetic studies being undertaken concurrently by PhD student Don Tarling in ANU, yielding, among other things, the polarity of the magnetization. It quickly became apparent that there was a zonation of normal and reversed polarity with time, not only showing that reversed magnetization was real, but that a polarity time scale was possible. With the group at the US Geological Survey, our work quickly lead to the development of the geomagnetic time scale, which also was found to be applicable to the calibration of the age of magnetic ‘stripes’ on either side of mid-ocean ridges, and hence rates of seafloor spreading. Thus, this work became part of the foundation for the plate tectonic model of Earth behaviour.
In 1978 I became involved in trying to sort out the apparent inconsistencies in K/Ar ages assigned to the KBS Tuff in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya. Ages for the tuff ranged from about 1.6 to 2.6 Ma, and it became important to resolve this issue as at the time one of the oldest known hominin fossils occurred in strata just below the KBS Tuff. We were able to show that the KBS Tuff was in fact about 1.86 ± 0.02 Ma old, using the conventional K/Ar method on anorthoclase phenocrysts in pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff, followed by step heating experiments by the 40Ar/39Ar dating technique, leading to essentially flat age spectra, and in more recent times by single crystal 40Ar/39Ar dating, confirming the previously determined ages. We now have over 35 levels well-dated in the sequences of the Omo-Turkana Basin, most ages completely consistent with the stratigraphic order, from just over 4.2 Ma to virtually the present day, with a significant gap in deposition, at least in the subaerial sections, between about 0.7 and 0.2 Ma. The studies have continued until this day in the Omo-Turkana Basin as new tephra beds, some of which have pumice clasts, have been found. A major driving force for the detailed geochronology has been the recovery from the sequences of numerous vertebrate fossils, including many hominins of various genera and species. Provided fossils can be placed relative to the known sequence of rhyolitic tuffs, then ages can be assigned to generally better than 0.1 Ma, without the need for further dating. Numerical time scales of this kind are important as they allow ages to be placed on vertebrate fossils independently of assumptions as to their evolutionary origins.
During this long career in K/Ar dating several mass spectrometers were employed to undertake the isotopic analyses, and increased precision of measurement was achieved as well as a major reduction in size of sample required, especially with the introduction of 40Ar/39Ar dating in the mid 1970s. With single crystal dating becoming possible we moved toward automation, so that more than a decade ago we began to make argon extractions, and isotopic measurements including data acquisition, by computer, without attendance of an individual. This improved the productivity of the laboratory quite dramatically. During this whole time, many significant geological studies were undertaken by myself and by PhD students and postdoctoral people, so the laboratory was very productive.
In formal retirement much of the time is spent writing up past work but doing some experimental study, mainly on the Omo-Turkana Basin sequences, at the University of Queensland, as much of the laboratory at ANU was dismantled several years ago.
Honours awarded include Fellow of the Geological Society of America (1978); Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (1988); Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (1997); Hon DSc, University of Glasgow (2009); and Adjunct Professor or Honorary Professor, University of Queensland from 2007. I have been a Visiting Fellow in RSES, ANU since 2001.
In 1960 I married Pam Hodgson and we produced three children, all now grown up and leading successful lives. A special tribute goes to Pam for her support over all the years, especially as my field trips often meant extended periods away from home.

Kenneth Glencoe MCKENZIE

1928 - 2003

Ken McKenzie passed away suddenly in the morning of 14 May 2003, after his usual walk on his beloved property 'Yugen', near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. His death interrupted sharply a lifetime of vibrant scientific work, and community activities. Ken is survived by his wife, Judith Le Lievre, two sons, three daughters, and eleven grandchildren.

Ken was born on 18 September 1928 in Poona, India, where he received his early education at Bishops High School (1936-45), and later at Wilsons College, at the University of Bombay (1945-47). In 1948 he began military service in the British Army (Royal Engineers) in Britain, where he was trained as a surveyor (engineering, topographic, photogrammetric), and was later posted to Hong Kong and Malaya. During his five years (1948-53) in the army, he showed his sporting prowess in hockey, cricket, and athletics. Ken's surveying skills later led to jobs in Australia with seismic and gravity teams prior to, and during, his study for a BSc in Geology at the University of Western Australia. He gained his hockey blue in his first year. After graduating in 1957, Ken was employed as an oil company exploration geologist (Caltex/Amoco; Filipinas Oil; Exoil), and gained considerable field experience in Australia and the Philippines. Ken used his surveying skills again on a joint expedition of the Western Australian Museum and the Museum of Palaeontology, Berkeley, California, to document the sites of vertebrate localities in the Triassic Blina Shale of the Canning Basin, W.A. This was the subject of his first paper, which was published in 1961. In 1960 Ken returned to the University of Western Australia to commence study for the PhD degree. The topic of his reserach "Oyster Harbour: a marginal marine environment", which documented the ecological association of ostracods and foraminiferids off Albany, Western Australia, marked the beginning of a distinguised career of reserach on Ostracoda.

After he gained his PhD in 1963, Ken was awarded post-doctoral scholarships at the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, the Department of Geology, University of Minnesota (1963-64), and the Department of Zoology, Monash University (1965-67). In 1967, he was appointed Head of the Entomostraca Section at the British Museum (Natural History), London, and held this position until 1972. It was here Ken started to think about the origin of the crustaceans, and learned much from several of the world's leading experts on this group, including Sidnie Manton, who worked in an adjacent office. In the field, he led the Royal Society's expediation to the Aldabra Islands, off Madagascar, and made collections for the BM in South Africa and South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile). It was such collections that awakened his interest in the palaeobiographic distribution of Cainozoic ostracods, both freshwater and marine. He also developed an interest in the quantitative aspects of taxonomy, and was awarded a Diploma in Numerical Taxonomy at the Estudos Avancados de Oeiras, Portugal. By the time Ken left England he had won a well-earned reputation as one of the world's leading researchers on living and Cenozoic marine and freshwater ostracods.

In 1973 Ken returned to Australia, and established the Geology department in the School of Applied Science at the Riverina College of Advanced Education (now the Charles Sturt University), Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. This department is now closed, but not before having made a significant contribution to the educational needs in the Riverina region, and to scientific knowledge well beyond. Despite heavy teaching commitments, Ken produced a substrantial flow of research papers, among which those on Cainozoic ostracods, formed the basis of his thesis for a DSc (University of Western Australia), which was awarded in April 1982.

Ken developed an international network of colleagues, all sharing a mutual passion for Ostracods. He established good friendships with many of them, especially those with whom he shared co-authorship in joint papers. Some of the earliest were those in the United States (Fred Swain, Richard Benson, Roger Kaesler, and William van den Bold), England (Peter Sylvester-Bradley), and Sweden (Richard Reyment). Others were in France (Jean-Pierre Peypouquet), Italy, India, China and Japan.

In 1985 he was appointed an Associate in the Department of Geology, University of Melbourne, where he supervised the research of Mark Warne (PhD) and John Neil (MSc) on Cainoizoic marine ostracods of Victoria. After his formal retirement from his teaching duties at Charles Sturt University in 1988, he continued many more productive years of ostracod and crustacean research at the University of Melbourne. From here, and from his home in Wagga Wagga he maintained a fine record of individual and collaborative research with colleagues in Australia, and worldwide. Without teaching commitments, Ken was also able to spend longer periods consolidating his research links previously established with colleagues in Italy, India, Sweden, and China (Pei-ji Chen).

In all, Ken published about 175 papers and edited or co-edited several books. His ostracod research could be broadly divided into the biology and biogeography of extant species from freshwater, brackish and marine environments, and the palaeontology of extinct species throughout the Phanerozoic. From the latter work he developed his ideas on the phylogeny and classification of the Ostracoda, and how this was related to the evolution of the Crustacea as a whole. To my knowledge, Ken has still one paper, at least, in the publication pipeline. I was recently shown a manuscript, which he co-authored, describing the ostracod fauna of Miocene freshwater limestones from the Riversleigh World Heritage deposits of northern Queensland.

Ken will be remembered for his ability in organising many scientific conferences, either as the main organiser, or part of the organising committee, beginning with the Origin of Life meeting of the Systematics Association in London, in 1969. He was a co-founder of the Shallow Tethys (ST) working group of the International Palaeontological Association, together with Giuliano Piccoli (University of Padua, Italy). It was typical of Ken to put his hand up at the First ST meeting in Padua, 1982, and volunteer to organise the second meeting in Wagaa Wagga in 1986. In 1988, I well remember receiving his phone call from Wales at the 10th International Symposium on Ostracoda (ISO) in Aberystwyth, telling me of a fortuitous opportunity had arisen for us to host the next ISO meeting of this group in Australia. During the next three years Ken, together with Patrick De Deckker and myself, organised the 11th International Symposium on Ostracoda, which was held at Deaking University on its Warnambool campus in 1991.

Ken put great emphasis on original thought in reserach, and never felt constrained to accept current orthodocy, without critical eveluation. In this spirit, he admired the concepts of such iconoclasts as Sam Carey and Art Boucot, who he selected as keymote speakers at the Shallow Tethys 2 meeting, and to whom he dedicated the volume of the proceedings.

Ken had a distinct, easy-flowing writing style, which in some papers especially those dealing with Tethys, tendid to be rather florid. However, this did not detract from their clarity. He could immediately attract the attention of the reader, with snapy titles like "Homeomorphy: Persistent joker in the taxonomic pack, ..." The extent and classical background of his knowledge was exemplified by his interest and research into Tethys. In his concluding epilogue on the proceedings of the Second Shallow Tethys Symposium he discussed the origin of Tethys from many aspects, starting from classical mythology and ending with modern sceintific thoughts of Suess, Wegener, and the plate tectonic model. It is noteworthy that one reviewer (Tony Hallam) of the published proceedings "was charmed to see what must be the first ever citation of Botticelli's Birth of Venus in a scientific reference list.

Italy was second home to Ken. He had made about ten visits to the University of Parma, since 1965, each about 2-3 months per year, three visits to the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, and one visit to the University of Padua. All of these visits involved collaboration in joint studies, and a simultaneous absorption of local cultural values. In October 2001, Ken travelled to Parma to receive the Scritture d'Acqua Premio Salsomaggiore Internazionale, a prestigious award supported by the European Commission, several ministries of the Italian Government, and many Communes in northern Italy. A personal profile of Ken in the local newspaper i June 2001 described his typical day starting, like many other Parma citizens, with a visit to his favourite café for his usual cup of coffee, and a read of the local events in the Gazzetta di Parma. The reporter thought that Ken looked typically Italian, so much so, he compared his physiognomy with that of Arturo Toscanini. Ken had an excellent knowledge of the Italian language, literature, art and history. He published a volume of poetry in Italian, and also translated into English the operatic play "Il diavolo con le zinne" by the Italian (Nobel Prize-winning) playwright, Dario Fo, to bring back to Australia.

Ken had a discerning taste for wine, and was proactive in the promotion of the wines produced at the Charles Sturt University (then the Riverina College of Advanced Education). Whenever he visited Canberra, he would bring 6 of the best 'College Wines' for his BMR palaeontological colleagues to taste, and to place their orders. During his visit to Bordeaux in 1979, as well as working on the Cenozoic ostracods from the Aquitaine Basin, he also managed to spend some time picking grapes in the vineyards of Gascogny. His zest for life, and enthusiasm for activities beyond his chosen field of scientific interest seemed almost boundless. In his early years at the Riverina College he edited the literary magazine Grapeshot (1974-78), and was involved in several drama and ballet productions (1973-1986). Wherever he visited, he would bring home to Wagga Wagga something of the cultural values he had learned from the host country. On his return from France in 1979, he lost no time in sharing his keen interest in French music with others on Radio 2WG, Wagga Wagga.

Ken was a man of integrity, with a strong sense of purpose, which was expressed in his service to the community, through local Government. In 1991 he was elected a Councillor on the Wagga Wagga City Council, where his sharp mind, and his analytical skills, were greatly valued. He declined an invitation to stand for re-election at the end of his four-year term of office, because he still had many scientific projects to complete. Ken was also a man of strong philosophical convictions, and a popular, and well-respected, member of St Andrew's Presbyterian Church and Parish of Wagga Wagga. It was here he actively participated in church life as Secretary of the management committee (1975-85), and frequently gave talks on his scientific work to various groups. At last years St Andrew's Day concert, he read a number of poems of Robbie Burns, to the delight of the audience, who were also impressed with his accent.

Ken will be remembered for both his scientific achievements and his humanity, by so many people, his local community of Wagga Wagga, and his colleagues in Australia, and throughout the world.

TAG #130, March 2004
PETER J. JONES, Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, The Australian National University

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Alex McKinlay

Alexander (Alex) Cameron MacLean McKinlay passed away on March 18 2009, aged 83 years.
Alex held the qualification of a Bachelor of Science with first class honours in Geology, graduating from the University of Glasgow in 1945. From 1946 until his retirement in the late 1990s, Alex pursued an unbroken professional career as a geologist, operating in the United Kingdom, Tanzania, Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. Following postgraduate research work at Glasgow University, in 1947 Alex accepted the position of Geologist with H M Overseas Civil Service in the Geological Survey of Tanganyika (now Tanzania), east Africa. Alex spent many field seasons "on safari", mapping and evaluating the coalfields and coal resources of Tanganyika (most notably the Ketewaka–Mchuchuma coalfields), leading to the publication of several definitive works on those resources and the country's geology.
From 1960 to 1965, Alex served as the Chief Geologist with the Mineral Resources Department, Tanzania, where he initiated, planned and supervised the extensive regional mapping and mineral reconnaissance programs. He supervised the publication of a large number of half-degree geological map sheets and explanatory notes that remain current to this day.
Between 1965 and 1970 Alex served as Deputy Commissioner and Acting Commissioner with the Department of Mineral Resources, Tanzania, responsible for the technical and administrative direction of all aspects of the government's mines department and mineral development, whilst simultaneously retaining the responsibilities of Chief Geologist. Alex provided direction for and input to national policy and decisions for the development and regulation of the mining and petroleum industry and of minerals/petroleum exploration. From 1966, he was a member of the State Diamond Committee, responsible for sorting gem diamond production from the Mwudai, Alamasi and Kahama mines, whose annual production neared 1 000 000 carats. In 1967, Alex was the Lyell Fund recipient from the Geological Society of London, recognising his achievements and publications in regional geology and coalfield investigations.
Alex and his family moved to Australia in 1970, when he accepted the position of District Geologist (minerals) with BHP in Brisbane. Here he managed Queensland operations for metal exploration and property evaluation and mineral development, including gold, base metals, uranium, bauxites, laterites, chromite and fluorite. Alex also liaised extensively with State and Federal geological survey, mines and environmental organisations.
Between 1975 and 1981 Alex served as Deputy and then Chief Government Geologist with the Geological Survey of Papua New Guinea. Here he provided technical and administrative direction for all activities of the national geological survey. He was involved in regional mapping, gold and base metal prospecting and oil/gas exploration (including Porgera and Wau gold, Freida, Yandera, Bougainville and New Britain copper, Ramu nickel, Morobe chromite, and petroleum operation in the Papuan Basin and the North New Guinea Basin). Alex was instrumental in negotiations and testing that led to the exploitation of the Ok Tedi porphyry copper gold deposit, and served as a Director and Managing Director of the Ok Tedi Development Company. He also assisted in establishing a network of volcano, earthquake and tsunami monitoring and warning stations. From 1981 until his retirement in the late 1990s, Alex served as Technical Manager for Layton Mining Consultants, Brisbane, providing feasibility studies and prospecting for a wide variety of known and potential coal, oil shale, hydrocarbon, diamond, precious metal, tin, mineral sand and kaolin deposits throughout Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines.
TAG #152, September 2009

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Robert Joseph William MCLAUGHLIN

1924 - 2003

Bob McLaughlin died in Melbourne as a result of a massive stroke on 19 June, 2003 aged 78 years.

He was born in Wellington, New Zealand on 4 July, 1924 and studied geology and chemistry at Victoria University College, Wellington, graduating with an MSc and the award of the Sir Julius Von Haast Prize for the top place in New Zealand. In 1946 he left to take up a Post-Graduate Scholarship in the Department of Mineralogy and Perology at Cambridge University, travelling on a cargo ship and working as a deckhand, which he admitted, "was indeed a learning experience." After the award of a PhD in 1949 he was appointed to a teaching and research position in the Department from 1950 to 1955, during which he was awarded a prestigious Leverhulme Research Award and spent four months at the Mineral Sciences Department at Pennsylvania State College.

Bob was always attracted to the practical aspects of mineraology and geochemistry in industrial processes and from 1955 to 1959 he was appointed Technical Director of British Potteries at Stoke-on-Trent. However the demands of the British climate and his love of teaching and research attracted him back to university life and he came to Australia in 1959 as Senior Lecturer in Geology at the University of Melbourne where he established a new course in Geochemistry. He was promoted to a Readership in Geology in 1967.

His research interests were broad and extended from clays and fine grained materials to mineral equilibria and exploration geochemistry. He authored a number of patents dealing with hydrometallurgical processing of minerals, in particular the conversion of ilmenite to the industrially important product titanium doixide. In the field of practical geology he recognised that the beach sands along th eastern Coromandel coastline in New Zealand were largely made up of ilmenite and zircon and not the less valuable titano-magnetite iron sands common in other parts of that country. This resource is about to be fully explored and exploited commercially.

At Melbourne University he served as Acting Head of Department, coordinator of the Honours course and Examiner for HSC Geology and will be particularly remembered by his many students who appreciated his ready willingness to share his wide experience in geology and chemistry with them. He was ever ready to champion the particular difficulties faced by women students in what was then a rather male dominated profession.

Following his retirement in 1987 he continued to work on chemical methods to produce very pure aluminium hydroxide, silica and titanium dioxide from clays. Bob was very much a loner in reserach and, as he said in an interview in February 2002, "... I didn't like ...collaborative research and working in teams, although I see now that it is probably the way to go. But at the time I wasn't particularly interested - I wanted to do it my way." And he did.

Bob is survived by his wife Kath, whom he married in Cambridge in 1955, and four children.

JOHN F. LOVERING, School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne
TAG #128, September 2003

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Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

A spur-of-the-moment decision led to Ian's career in geology. At the last moment he chose geology to make up the seven subjects required by his school. The geology master was an inspiring teacher and Ian was hooked. He completed a science degree at the University of Queensland at the end of 1951, was awarded First Class Honours two years later, and Master of Science two years after that, working part-time in the Geology Department in those four years. His first original field work was in early 1955, when he spent two months with three others in western Tasmania, being supplied by fortnightly airdrops.

In early 1956 Ian joined Geosurveys of Australia. A related company and International Nickel Company of Canada (Inco) were jointly exploring for nickel in the Giles Complex and he went to that project. Being among the first to investigate the large well-exposed bodies of the complex was exciting, especially as exploration included the first use of airborne EM in Australia, using technology still being developed by Inco, with follow up ground EM and diamond drilling. At times the geologists encountered small groups of natives still living the traditional nomadic life who had had little contact with Europeans. A visit to some outcrops with an unusual air photo texture, well south of the exposed Giles Complex, showed them to be unmetamorphosed sediments, at the northern edge of the yet-to-be-identified Officer Basin.

Ian joined the Bureau of Mineral Resources (now Geoscience Australia) late in 1957 and early in 1958 went to Antarctica with the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (Anare) as geologist and glaciologist, based at Mawson. The sector south and west of Mawson has one of the highest proportions of exposed rock of any region of Antarctica. It was almost unknown geologically (and much of it geographically) in 1958. The geological work was broad reconnaissance, usually only 2 to 3 hours being spent at widely separated places. Some transport was by Beaver aircraft based at Mawson, but during the summer Ian, a surveyor and a radio operator made a 650 km dog-sledging journey from Amundsen Bay to Mawson through unexplored country. There was always the hope of finding something different from the ubiquitous granulite facies metamorphics. One such find was mica schists at Wilson Bluff, 750 km south of Mawson. Contrary to first impressions, work in later years showed them to be older than the granulite facies rocks. And there was always the humbling experience of being the first human being to set foot on most of the exposures.

As part of the glaciological work Ian spent five weeks on a seismic traverse inland from Mawson to measure ice thickness and flow rates. He also initiated studies of the hypersaline lakes in the Vestfold Hills.

Back in Australia, Ian moved to work on mineral resources. However, he retained until 1971 responsibility for the planning and execution of Anare's geological work; this included liaising and co-ordinating with other countries' geological organisations. He was a member of several national and international committees concerned with Antarctic geology, and secretary of some for a time.

He returned to Antarctica five times for two to three months during the summer. In early 1960 and 1961 it was for exploration along the coast from the ship in conjunction with the station relief voyages. Helicopters were first used by Australia in Antarctica during the 1960 voyage. In early 1965 the relief ship was used as a base, 250 km west of Mawson, for survey and geological work inland, with helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft operating from the sea-ice. He participated in geological and survey work using temporary field bases in early 1969, and again in early 1970. He was awarded the Polar Medal in 1961 and made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1966 for his Antarctic work, and in 1970 received the Bellingshausen Medal from the Soviet Academy of Science.

Ian's work on mineral resources was initially the compilation, with others, of a summary of Australian mineral deposits which was published as BMR Bulletin 72 – The Australian Mineral Industry: The Mineral Deposits. Other outcomes were a variety of mineral deposit maps and the first metallogenic map of Australia.

The developing mineral boom of the late 1960s meant numerous requests for mineral resource information and Ian developed an interest in methods of storing and retrieving geological information. This led to a move in 1970 to BMR's information group. The work included initial studies for systems for handling data and bibliographic information and also involved some use of computers, when input and output was all punch cards and line printers.

In 1974 he returned to work directly related to the mineral industry as head of the Mineral Economics Section, responsible for mineral commodity studies. He was able to keep his feet on the ground as the commodity specialist for tin. His role changed in 1985 to co-ordination and broad supervision of the mineral groups in the Mineral Resources Branch; then with increasing emphasis on quantitative mineral resource assessment, he was responsible for this work until his retirement at the end of 1990. He acted as head of the Mineral Resources Branch for a year during this period.

Following his retirement, he worked as consultant on several resource studies for BMR and the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources before succumbing to other interests such as bushwalking and conservation of a heritage- listed ski chalet.

Ian was working during an exciting time: Antarctica was still being explored; and in Australia the mineral industry grew from a minor player to a major part of the economy. He had the satisfaction of knowing his work met a need, and opportunities to work in places little known geologically or even geographically. That sort of opportunity might not be available now, but undoubtedly the challenges of tackling the unknown and contributing something are still there, albeit at a different level.

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John Bernard MCMANUS

Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

John served in the RAAF during 1942-48 and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

1949 - As a Commonwealth Rehabilitation Training Scheme (CRTS) student, he matriculated to study engineering or science at the University of Adelaide.
1950 - 53 An undergraduate student at the University of Adelaide and geology inorganic and physical chemistry were the major subjects studied. It was in this period that John, as a student, was invited to become a Foundation Member of the proposed GSA.
1954 - At the University of Adelaide, economic geology was studied for an honours degree. Mining I was studied and passed as part of the degree. During the holiday period 1953-54, work was undertaken with the Mt Lyell Mining and Railway Company, Queenstown, Tasmania, also to satisfy, in part, honours degree requirements.
1955 - 1957 Whilst employed at Broken Hill, Metalliferous Mining III, II and I subjects were studied (part-time) and passed respectively at the Broken Hill Technical College. Examinations were set through the University of New South Wales.
1965- A MSc degree in economic geology was received from the University of Adelaide following 16 months of full-time study leave in 1959-60.
Jan 1955 - Feb 1963 Employed as a mine and exploration geologist with The Zinc Corporation Ltd, New Broken Hill Consolidated Ltd and Enterprise Exploration Co Pty Ltd, within the Consolidated Zinc Corporation Group (merged with Rio Tinto).
Feb 1963 - Oct 1966 Senior Geologist, Metalliferous Division, Geological Survey of New South Wales
Nov 1966 - Nov 1967 Senior Geologist, Placer Exploration Pty Ltd (subsidiary of Placer Development Ltd).
Jan 1969 - Mar 1975 Principal, John McManus and Associates Pty Ltd, Consulting and Contract Geologists.
Apr 1975 - Aug 1980 Employed within a team in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission to evaluate Australia's uranium resources. In May 1978, John was seconded to the Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Department of Foreign Affairs, to appraise the potential for uranium resources in the Phillipines.
Aug 1980 - Dec 1981 Regional Geologist, Australia and New Zealand Exploration Co Pty Ltd (subsidiary of Union Carlude).
Jan 1982 - Apr 1989 Principal, Bosandex Pty Ltd Consulting and Contract Geologists.
May 1989 - Jun 1991 Consulting geological assignments prior to retirement.

John carried out duties in all Australian States and the Northern Territory, New Zealand, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Fiji.

In a retired category, he is financial with respect to being a Member of the Geological Society of Australia; a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and a Fellow of the Australia Institute of Geoscientists.

The duties of a mineral exploration and mining geologist are challenging and most rewarding when coupled with a stable family life.

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Terrence Patrick MERNAGH

Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia

I graduated from The University of Newcastle in 1984 with a PhD in physical chemistry. I took a temporary job at the Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) in 1984 and was immediately outposted to The University of Tasmania in Hobart to build Australia's first laser Raman microprobe. After successfully demonstrating the value of this new analytical technique to the earth sciences, I moved to Canberra in 1986 to take up a permanent position at the BMR now known as Geoscience Australia. I became a Research Scientist in 1989 and have slowly moved through the ranks to become a Principal Research Scientist. My initial expertise was in infrared and Raman spectroscopy but I have expanded my research interests to include studies of fluid inclusions, isotopes, mineral systems, information management and geochemical modelling.

I have been a member of the GSA since 1984 and served as Honorary Secretary of the Commonwealth Territories Division of the Geological Society of Australia (1990 – 1992) and as Honorary Secretary of the Specialist Group in Economic Geology (1996 – 2000). I am also a member of The Society of Economic Geologists, The Royal Australian Chemical Institute, and the National Representative for the Asian and Pacific International Fluid Inclusion Society.

I have been fortunate enough to be able to collaborate with a large number of Australian and overseas researchers which has led to the publication of over 120 papers in international journals and books. These publications cover work on a large variety of mineral deposits including copper mineralisation at Mt Isa, gold deposits in the Yilgarn Craton, Pilbara Craton, Lachlan Fold Belt, Tennant Creek, and the Tanami region, gold and base metal mineralisation in the Cobar District, NSW, unconformity uranium deposits in the Pine Creek Geosyncline, tin-tungsten deposits in the New England Fold Belt and China, VHMS deposits at Hellyer and Mt. Chalmers, porphyry copper-gold deposits in the Philippines and Indonesia, platinum group minerals in layered intrusions in the Pilbara Block, and a number of related mineralogical studies.

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Konrad Heinrich Richard MOELLE

1932 - 2002

After a long battle with cancer Konrad Moelle died at Newcastle on 24 March, 2002. He was given a fitting church-full Eucharistic celebration farewell by family and friends at Star of the Sea Church, Newcastle on 27 March.

Konrad was born on 4 November, 1932, in Minden, North Germany. He grew up essentially without his father who served on the Russian Front until 1952, so Konrad had to take on many family responsibilities when still quite young.

Forced to live in the family cellar for some time towards the end of the war when Minden was being intensively bombed, Konrad benefited a little later when the town was occupied by Canadian and then British troops. Thus he began the path to his impressive command of the English language. He was later rather fluent in Italian as well.

With the disturbance of war Konrad was nearly 21 before he began undergraduate studies in geology and mining at Munter, before continuing such stuides at Aachen and Frankfurt am Main.

In 1957 he began post-graduate studies in Petrophysics and Structural Geology at Innsbruck under the redoubtable Bruno Sander. His fieldwork took him to northern Italy, also known as South Tyrol, where he had at least one or two encounters with carabinieri concerned about autonomy seekers. A cool head and a sense of hunmour helped him get out of trouble and on with his work. He completed his Master of Science equivalent in 1959 and the Doctorate in 1961 in Geology and Petrofabric Analysis.

A fortunate meeting with a young Italian undergraduate, Nora Bolner, whom he helped to enrol in her courses in Romance philology and physical education in 1957, led to their marriage in 1960, and their first home in an Innsbruck flat. The marriage celebrant happened to be an Australian Jesuit and Konrad was led to explore the theological writings of Karl and Hugo Rahner, an exploration he continued through later life.

Having decided to get experience in other climes Konrad made more than 40 job applications to Australian companies before being offered a job at Wollongong with BHP. Konrad and Nora arrived there in 1962, where he was sent to the Tech to "learn the practicalities". It turned out that he had already some considerable knowledge of them, and it soon became uncertain who was teaching whom. While Konrad enjoyed some aspects of his mining geology work there, it was not the happiest time for the family, as they tried to adapt to a new way of life. But the weather and the surf proved balms for the tortured soul. In this period he published one or two papers, on stone rolls as I remember. It was the beginning of a productive research life, with 152 refereed publications, although over the years perhaps his best work was in his 168 consultant reports (he kept impeccable records). Konrad felt his talents might lie within the academic field, albeit with a practical bent. Fortune smiled on him when he met Beryl Nashar and Claud Diessel and a position was offerd to him at Newcastle University.

Here Konrad was in his element, with a mixture of challenging research in coal mining geology, surface stability problems, a resurging coal industry anxious for academic support, students interested in a wide range of practical and theoretical geology, and a young staff anxious to make a name for themselves and for the department.

Furthermore there were colleagues in other disciplines ro get to know, rugby to be enjoyed, albeit mostly as a spectator, and Dixon Park Beach for early morning runs and the surf, summer and winter, not far from the home they set up at Merewether, which became a haven for guests from many countries and many interests.

Konrad was involved in the early days of the Newcastle Symposia, giving papers and leading field trips, and participating enthusiastically in the evening entertainments. Konrad's plain speaking, on occasions put him offside with colleagues and officials. His worry about stability problems in the Newcastle Coal Measures perhaps caused him to err on the side of predicting disaster on a grand scale, but his observations and mapping of the various failures at Shepherd's Hill, Merewether, Lambton Heights, Winbeldon Grove, Tickhole Tunnel and Speers Point, inter alia, certainly helped to establish a reliable knowledge base for local engineers. It was always a joy to work with him, and although we had our disagreements in the field, his attention to detail and the relating of cause to effect was particularly instructive.

Konrad's sense of humour was strong, and occasionally bawdy. It also sometimes got a bit out of hand, as when we were preparing a small show for one Newcastle Symposium dinner, along the lines of the Italian 'commedia del arte'. It was to be a rather mild skit on the foibles of some of the registrants. But his enjoyment of the potential fun during the days prior to the event caused some worries to the Department's chairman at the time, and in the event the whole exercise was considerably 'toned down'. As it turned out the venue was not particularly suited to the event, and much of the satire was certainly lost.

Konrad was in demand as a consultant, and in 1989 he retired as an Associate Professor from the Department of Geology to become Director of the Institute of Coal Research, affiliated with the University but financially supported largely by industry, and with some government support. Much of the support came from Konrad's overseas consulting which ranged from Japan to Morocco, with many places in between, not forgetting Queensland, and near at hand, the Ulan coalfield. Konrad was involved through the Joint Coal Board in the provision of short term training courses for Asian engineers and geologists, which brought a considerable number of trainees to Newcastle over a period of nearly twenty years.

A serious scholar and researcher, fine lecturer and encourager of students young and old, joker and bon viveur, critically minded and widely informed, form but loving father and generous friend, Konrad came as close as possible to a modern Renaissance man (although I don't know if he could sing!). He is survived by his mother and brother in Germany, and by Nora, their sons David and Martin and daughter Barbara. Konrad passed on to Nora his love of the Permian coal measures, and her beautiful pottery, embellished with images of the Permian flora, was a feature of the Palaeographia exhibition held recently at Macquarie University.

We will remember the happy times together.

[With kind assistance from the family and acknowledgement to the philosopher David Dockrill, who delivered the funeral oration]
TAG #125, December 2002

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Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia
Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

I was led to geology through a Boy Scout group active with camps and bush walking. Questions of how landscapes developed and what rocks mean came to me and I was disappointed to find that at secondary school no subjects available touched on these themes. The questions persisted and finally I decided to study geology at university.

I studied geology at the University of Melbourne, qualified for the degree of B.Sc. in 1952, then spent an honours year focused on geomorphology with particular attention on slope processes, which was later to link with an interest in engineering geology.

I joined the Geological Survey of Victoria in 1954, with several years of work largely in regional geological mapping mainly with the Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous continental rocks. Publication of the Moroka and Wonnangatta 1: 63 360 geological sheets resulted.

Strong growth in State infrastructure projects beginning in about 1960 revealed a general lack of geologists able to contribute essential geological understanding to the planning and construction of major engineering projects. With the support of Dr D. E. Thomas, Director of the Geological Survey, I became increasingly involved with engineering geology and engineers leading to the creation of an engineering geology section of the Survey. The projects of which I am most proud are the investigation and construction of both the Melbourne Underground Rail Loop and the Melbourne West Gate Bridge. Apart from the bridge, there were many other projects in the Yarra Delta area, the results from which followed in special detailed three-dimensional stratigraphy maps useful to engineers.

Slope stability studies developed, with statutory roles for advice to local government in certain shires. The Survey also became responsible for state-wide investigations of beaches and the coastal processes affecting them.

The interface between geology and civil engineering is something which I explored and had much pleasure in developing through co-operative work between geologists and engineers. I retired from the Geological Survey in 1992 and have since worked as a consultant in engineering geology. I am also a contributor to a group making a computer-based comprehensive map series on the geomorphology of Victoria.

I was a committee member of the Victorian Division of the Geological Society of Australia from 1978–82 and the Divisional Chairman in 1981. An honour was receipt of the Selwyn Medal of the Victorian Division of the Society in 2000 for my contribution to engineering geology. I have been an active member of the Australian Geomechanics Society, to which I have given many lectures and was an editor and major contributor to its significant publication Engineering Geology of Melbourne (Ed. W.A. Peck, J.L. Neilson, R.J. Olds and K.D. Seddon) 1992, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. I have contributed to the three editions of Geology of Victoria (1976, 1988 and 2003), published by the Victorian Division of the Geological Society of Australia.

I represented Australia at the Madrid meeting of the International Association of Engineering in 1978. I was invited as the opening lecturer at the 1986 UNESCO-sponsored international Landplan Conference in Hong Kong.

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Professor Robert William (Bob) Nesbitt
I was born in 1936 in the north-east of England and am a fervent supporter of Newcastle United.  The only
child of a coal miner, I was educated at Blyth Grammar School and took my degree at the University of Durham
(1958) followed by a PhD in1961.  My PhD research involved field work on basement rocks of south west Greenland
and my supervisor was Dr Henry Emeleus.

In 1961, I accepted the post of Lecturer in Geology at the University of Adelaide where I stayed until 1980. 
My first research programme was centered on the Giles Complex; a series of mafic-ultrabasic intrusions on the
border of South Australia, Northern Territory and Western Australia.  This wonderfully exposed Proterozoic complex,
emplaced into a granulite terrane led to my life-time interest in mafic and ultramafic rocks. 

During this period and thanks to the far-sighted and generous study leave offered by the University, I was able
to spend several periods of sabbatical leave in Europe and North America.  In 1967 I worked at the University
of Manchester where I researched high P-T hydrous experiments on basalts.  This was followed by 6 months at
the University of Yale working on Sr isotopes in USA volcanics.  Other research institutes where I enjoyed research
facilities were University of Toronto, the University of Rennes in France and the ANU.

In 1969, I switched my interest to komatiites.  These newly-described rocks displayed rapid quenching textures
of the type I had seen in the Manchester hydrothermal experiments and I was convinced the rocks were genuinely
volcanic.  I described the textures in a GSA publication in 1969 and introduced the term “spinifex texture” borrowed
from local prospectors.  Together with my colleague Dr Shen-Su Sun, I worked on the petrology and geochemistry
of komatiites and modern sea-floor basalts and this inevitably led to an interest in boninites and a life-time association
with Japanese geologists.

In 1980 I accepted the post of Professor of Geology at Southampton University where I was Head of Department for
10 years during which time I was also Dean of Science (1987 to 1990).  At Southampton, I become involved in mineral
deposit research projects funded by the European Community.  Funding from this and with the cooperation of instrument
manufacturers, led to the establishment of a laser ablation multiple collector ICP mass spectrometry laboratory which
continues to be productive.

In 1988 I was invited to organise a Geological Society of London conference celebrating the Australian Bicentenary. 
I chose the topic of Australian Mineral Deposits and thanks to the support of Western Mining Corporation and particularly
of Roy Woodall, funding was found to bring all the speakers from Australia.  Shortly afterwards I was given an Honorary
Membership of the GSA which I suspect was reward for bringing Australian Mineral deposit research to the attention of Europe.
In 1994, I was involved in the creation of the Southampton Oceanography Centre (now the National Oceanography Centre)
and I began work on oceanographic topics.  As I consequence I had the opportunity to dive (3,000 metres) on one of the
mid-Atlantic Ridge, black smoker localities using a Russian MIR submersible.  A life-changing experience.

Since 1962 I have published over 100 peer-reviewed scientific papers on a variety of topics ranging from
layered intrusions, X ray fluorescence techniques, komatiites, boninites, MORB and hydrothermal vents, mineral
deposits (especially Ni),  geochronology of Zimbabwean volcanics, modern Japanese arc volcanics, and the
geochemistry of modern ocean sediments.  During this time I have supervised over 20 PhD and innumerable
student project theses.  Since 2002, I have been associated with the Marie Curie Actions group which is part of
the European Union research funding group.  This work entails participating in the selection processes for graduate
and postgraduate training grants and acting as an external expert in progress reviews of large network grants. 
I have served on NERC Research Committees, and on the UK University Grants Committee.  I have acted as
External Examiner to several British and Irish Universities and been a foreign expert for the French CNRS review
My membership of the Australian Geological Society began in 1962 and I was secretary to the inaugural GSA
Convention in Adelaide in (?) 1966.  I have served as secretary and Chairman of the SA branch.

Bruce Wallace NISBET

1948 - 2006

Bruce Nisbet died following a brief, but courageous battle with cancer, on Sunday 7 May 2006 in Perth. 'Bruiser' was my best mate and business partner for about 25 years - it's been an extraordinary experience sharing a career with a uniquely gifted geologist. No other geologist I have ever known has blended so well scientific rigour with the pragmatic but lateral thought that is critical for effective exploration.

Bruce completed his degree at James Cook and was doing his Honours at ANU in 1970 when our paths first crossed. Although I didn't know him well at that time, his intellect shone through, as did his propensity for Four X beer. Our paths crossed again at Pancontinental Mining in 1981. In the meantime he had completed his PhD in structural geology at Albany in New York State, worked for Amoco Minerals in New South Wales and Queensland and married his first wife, a French lady Anne-Marie.

Bruce left Pancon in 1983, setting up a geological consultancy with John Leishman and later joined me at Hunter Resources, starting a close partnership that endured until he died. And what a time we had ... the nine years together at Hunter led to numerous discoveries, the most significant being the Ernest Henry deposit in 1990.

At that time we had already been successful at Hunter, having discovered and mined Mertondale in the mid 1980s, and discovered the gold deposits at Goongarrie (subsequently mined by Julia Mines). Bruce with his strong structural background played a critical role in these discoveries. However, the key turning point at Hunter was an incredibly stimulating company technical conference in 1989, organised by Bruce, which laid the groundwork for the discoveries to come.

The two key conclusions from the conference were to focus on structurally controlled gold mineralisation in the Wiluna region and 'Olympic Dam style' copper-gold mineralisation, which we later termed 'Iron Oxide Copper-Gold' (IOCG) in the Cloncurry region. This exploration focus, driven by Bruce, resulted directly in the major gold discoveries at Nimary-Jundee (developed by Eagle Mining/Great Central/Normandy) and the Dalgaranga deposits (developed by Equigold). During this period, another key participant at Hunter was Rod Hammond, who also died tragically earlier this year in Mexico. Through extensive fieldwork and detailed magnetic interpretation, Bruce and Rod developed a structural understanding of greenstone-hosted gold mineralisation, controversial at the time, but widely recognised today - the ideas were presented in a landmark paper 'Towards a Structural and Tectonic Framework for the Central Norseman - Wiluna Belt, Western Australia' in a University of Western Australia Kalgoorlie conference in 1991.

In parallel with his work in Western Australia, Bruce, along with Mike Etheridge, had been developing the IOCG model in the Cloncurry district. These ideas had evolved out of Bruce's work in the Selwyn area for Amoco in the late 1970s, coupled with a reassessment of the covered regions north of Cloncurry, utilising his skills in magnetic interpretation. Bruce played the pivotal role in this 'blind' discovery. With limited available funds, Hunter brought WMC in as a joint-venture partner and drilling of the second of Bruce's seven targets intersected wide zones of copper-gold - Ernest Henry was discovered. In recognition of the history of discovery at Hunter, for which I emphasise Bruce was the driving technical force, the Association of Mineral Exploration Companies awarded us 'Prospector of the Year' - an award of which Bruce was justifiably proud. During these years Bruce enjoyed married life with Diana, embracing her two sons with his daughter Gemma being born in 1986.

The success at Hunter galvanised our resolve to do our own thing, which started in 1992 with the establishment of Orpheus Geoscience, the consulting company that effectively took the technical team out of Hunter. In early 1993 we raised some seed capital and kicked off Equinox, which listed in September 1994 after of some of the hardest work of our careers, taking substantial personal financial risks and getting onto a very steep learning curve about corporate life.

In 2001 Bruiser married Lynn and subsequently moved to build a new life in England, embracing village life in the Cotswolds. England proved an effective base for Equinox's operations in Zambia and Peru, but Bruiser was always more than pleased to be heading home to Lynn and the tranquillity of the Cotswolds.

At Equinox over the last 13 years we have had the roller coaster ride that comes with the territory - from the excitement of a discovery in the Gawler (which did not live up to expectations); to the tough times in the late 1990s when no one wanted to know about exploration companies; to the evolution of Equinox into an emerging copper producer of significance. It has been a hard road, and it's sad that Bruce will not now share in the rewards that he has worked towards with such dogged determination - fortunately this will be his legacy to his family.

He has come a long way from the boy that grew up in Collinsville and whose father wanted him to have a 'job for life' working down the coal mines. It has been a tribute to his intellectual capacity, but even more so to his gritty determination, that he had come so far and achieved so much. Driving him along the way was his tremendous intellect and geological intuition, meshed with a tremendous capacity for lateral thought. As his career progressed, these capacities evolved into an ability to synthesise geology, geophysics, and the signature of known mineralisation, into practical interpretations for targeting.

Bruce had a passion for geology and exploration that is unique. He has also been highly successful in passing on this passion. There are numerous geologists in the industry who were inspired by Bruce; in the days following his death many sending messages of condolence and gratitude for Bruce's mentoring.

We will be remembering Bruce's extraordinary contribution to our industry by establishing a bursary inspired by his exploration philosophy. This was one of Bruce's dying wishes; and further, that it be called the Hammond-Nisbet Bursary, to be administered by Mike Etheridge, Peter Williams, Nick Archibald and myself.

Bruce was an imposing figure. Gentle, kind and generous to those he loved. Tremendously loyal, he could be blunt, not suffering fools lightly. But for this reason, you always knew where you stood with Bruiser, as he would tell you. His opinions were often slow coming, carefully deliberated prior to speaking - but when he did offer his opinion it frequently cut through to the essence of the argument.

He had an underlying shyness and needed to push himself out of his comfort zone at times. He was never comfortable with the broker promotion side of the business, although he did it very well, with his technical credibility shining through. One of his final achievements was the recent floating of Alturas Minerals in Toronto - a challenging exercise that required all of his determination.

Bruce was a great scientist and an inspiration to so many others. He was a wonderfully complex, multi-facetted, remarkable man who has made an indelible impact on all those that have known him. The huge turnout at his funeral was testimony to that lasting impact. He faced his final challenge with that same gritty determination, dignity and courage. None of us will ever forget the Bruiser.

TAG #140, September 2007

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Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

1919 - 2004

Elliot Sylvester O'Driscoll was born in Guildford, just north of today's Perth Airport, WA on 25 December 1919, one of the three brothers who became well-known geologists in Australia.

As he was always known as Tim he added Timothy to his name after WW II. He died in Adelaide, South Australia on 25 October 2004.

Tim graduated from the University of Western Australia in geology and mathematics in 1940, having joined Western Mining Corporation as a geologist in 1939 at Kalgoorlie then to Norseman, where he served as a mine geologist under Haddon F King.

He enlisted in Melbourne on 4 May 1942 as a trainee officer in the Royal Australian Air Force, having applied for a commission on 11 March 1941. he served as a navigator in 11 and 20 squadrons (Catalinas), based in the north east and north west of Australia, serving in Papua New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea and in the islands, being posted to 112 Flight Air Sea Rescued and then to Central Flying School, Rathmines as a Flight Lieutenant navigator instructor. After ferrying duties from USA during and after hostilities, he was discharged from CFS on 11 February 1946. he was proficient in firle shooting from two years as a secondary school cadet, in tennis, cricket and swimming. His 1945 RAAF assessment was very complimentary.

Tim then rejoined Haddon King at Broken Hill, New South Wales, where he investigated shearing and folding patterns, while rising to Chief Mine Geologist. In 1953 the two of them published 'The Broken Hill Lode' in Geology of Australian Ore Deposits.

He accepted appointment as Senior Geologist, Uranium Section in the Geological Survey of South Australia in 1955 rising to Chief Geologist in June 1957, having established a 3D structural model for Radium Hill. That same year he was awarded a Harkness Fellowship enabling him to study petroleum exploration in the USA, Canada and the UK. On returning to administering 40 geoscientists, his interest in the philosophy of science and geological structures in particular soon warranted a career shift away from administration to scientific study of the Cooper Basin Structure.

The Australian Mineral Industries Research Association awarded Tim a three-year Research Fellowship (1963-1965), allowing him to follow his interests under the supervision of Professor Eric A Rudd in the Department of Economic Geology at the University of Adelaide. This led to the formalisation of lineament tectonics as applied to mineral and petroleum exploration. During these studies, he received his MSc (April 1963) and PhD (April 1965). The Broken Hill mine Manager's Association funded a two-year extension (1966-67) for further assessment of Broken Hill's regional structures.

Time returned briefly to head exploration sections within Asarco and then within Selection Trust, but rejoined Western Mining Corporation in 1970 as Senior Staff Geological Consultant. He remained with WMC flor the next 26 years. He then returned to Primary Industry South Australia for 18 months to train staff in his unique method of lineament analysis. Tim was then an Honorary Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Adelaide until the onset of his disabling illness.

In 1973 he served as a Distinguished Lecturer in North America for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, and returned to Texas in 1975 for a further assignment as a Visiting Professor. He received the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy President's Award in 1976, for his original work in modelling the tectonics of ore deposits and continental patterns and in 1981 he was appointed Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia Australian Distinguished Lecturer. In 1984, time was elected to the Fellowship of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.

Time was an outstanding scientist, who sought to help us understand the structure of the Earth at all scales, from outcrop and mine exposures, to regional and global dimensions. His methods were meticulous, often highlighting deep structures visible in a variety of data, but previously unseen by many. He strived to pass on his knowledge and experience to others, especially young geologists.

Because may of Tim's ideas and the results of his research often did not fit the currently accepted opinions of many in academia and industry, he often had difficulty having his observations and their interpretation taken seriously. A whole generation of geologists will perhaps need to pass away before much of his wisdom is applied in mineral exploration and his pioneering research extended.

As Rodney Boucher wrote in MESA Journal 36, he was a member of a number of professional societies, and published widely in national and international journals on the relationship of petroleum and mineral deposits to tectonic patterns in the Earth's crust.

Tim was predeceased by his wife, Rose Mary, whom he married in 1947, and is survived by his daughters, Ann-Marie and Catherine, and by four grandchildren.

Thanks to Keith Johns for his input and to Roy Woodall for allowing extensive quotation from the obituary published in the AusIMM Bulletin No.1 Jan/Feb 2005.

TAG 136, September 2005

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1901 - 2000

The Presient of the Australian Academy of Science, Professor Brian Anderson, has made the following remarks, expressing the deep sense of loss felt by all scientists on the recent passing of the Academy's founding President, Sir Mark oliphant.

"Sir Mark was Australia's leading statesman of science in the post-war period, following his ground-breaking research in Cambridge with Sir Ernest Rutherford before the Second World War. He played a pivotal role during the war in developing radar for aircraft and later in the Manhattan Project that produced the first atomic bombs, an experience that led him to a deeply held personal conviction that scientists had a responsibility to help avoid the catastroophc consequences of our growing technical capabilities.

When, after the Second World War, Australia was reaching for a future based on the new scientific revolution, Mark Oliphant accepted the challenge of returning to Australia to help form the Australian National University, becoming the founding Director of the Research School of Physical Sciences in 1950. His role was crucial to the success of the ANU as one of Australia's greatest research resources. In doing so, he gave up greater opportunities for personal research achievement overseas.

While at the ANU, Mark Oliphant joined with other leading scientists in 1954 to found the Australian Academy of Science, another pillar of Australia's current scientific capacity. His global standing was essential in winning the support of Sir Robert Menzies, the then Prime Minister, for the project, and he became the Academy's first President. Following his retirement from the ANU, Sir Mark served as Governor of South Australia from 1971 to 1976 and, in many less formal ways, became the best known and loved face of Australian science.

I am expressing to his family the condolences of all of Australia's scientists in their loss."

BRIAN ANDERSON, ANU Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering
TAG #116, September 2000

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Robin Langdon OLIVER

1921 - 2001

Robin Langdon Oliver passed away quietly on 1st February 2001, at an age of 79 years, two weeks after suffering a severe stroke.

He was born in Wellington New Zealand on the 21st December, 1921. It was here that he spent his schooling years. His father was the Director of the Dominion Museum, Wellington, and he had two sisters Nancy and Tricia.

He attended University at the Victoria College of Wellington of the University of New Zealand, where he undertook a science course majoring in Geology. He obtained both Bachelor and Master Degrees, in 1941 and 1943 respectively. During University vacation he obtained employment as a field assistant with the New Zealand Geological Survey, and during his Masters Study term he worked part time as a demonstrator for Geology practical classes.

During the war years of 1943-1944 he was called up for military service and joined a group, made up of scientists, coast watching on Campbell Island, an uninhabited and rather rugged outpost in the South Pacific belonging to New Zealand. Here he spent his off duty hours exploring and mapping the island's geology.

In 1945, at the cesation of hostilities, he returned to the New Zealand Geological Survey in Wellington. He was posted to the Ruapehu area to study volcanic activity, and survey ground water movements. He became a little too close to the volcanism and suffered a severe burn to his leg, the scar of which never disappeared. From 1946 to 1949 Robin worked as a photogeologist for the Shell Oil Company in Venezuela, assisting in the development of that country's vast oil wealth.

He now pined for an academic life and knew that he would have to obtain a doctorate degree to do so. With sedimentological studies in mind he was accepted into Cambridge, England. After discussions with Professor Tilley he chaged direction to do a metemorphic study of the Borrowdale Volcanics of the Lake District. At this point his patient fiance, Helen, followed him and they were married. They spent much time under canvas.

Robin completed his PhD in three and a half years and was now a capable metamorphic petrologist. He immediately obtained an Assistant Lectureship position at Oxford. Two years later, in 1955, he obtained a position as a photogeologist with the Canadian Photographic Survey Corporation. This Company was contracted by the Colombo Plan Corporation to assist under-developed Asian countries. The posting took Robin to Pakistan for ten months followed by twenty months in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

In 1958 Robin was appointed Lecturer (subsequently Senior Lecturer) in Metamorphic Petrology at the University of Adelaide. In 9159 he was invited to join an 8 man, New Zealand Alpine Club Party, on a working visit to Antarctica as Chief Geologist. This turned out to be the first of seven such scientific, summer field seasons to the south polar regions. These were in the summers of 1959-60, 1961-62, 1964-65, 1970-71, 1976-77, 1980-81, 1981-82. His departmental lecturing, fieldwork and assessment responsibilities continued with the programme. He applied to go again, and was very annoyed when told that applicants over 60 years of age, with certain medical conditions, were not considered. He is the first individual to have been witnessed to have willingly dived off the Antarctic continent into the ocean.

Robin initiated, jointly organised and hosted The Fourth International Conference on Antarctic Earth Sciences in Adelaide in 1982. He saw a great implication in the date, it being the centenary of Mawson's birthday. The conference was a huge success with almost 200 international visitors and 175 Antarctic papers presented. The crowning glory was the publication of the complete conference volume within twelve months of the meeting. He published regularly on metamorphic problems and continental match-ups throughout his career.

An invitation by the Ohio State Polar Research Insitute USA, to join their staff as a supervisor of Antarctic geology programmes was declined for personal reasons. In 1974 he declined, also for personal reasons, appointment to the foundation chair of Geology at Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Robin's experience considerably upgraded the Adelaide student field training programme with great benefit to the students and the department's prfile. however long days and evenings were always followed by a little fun around the camp fire.

Robin formally retired at the age of 60, but having received an offer of continuing presence, carried on as if nothing had changed. For two years he continued with some lecturing and rarely missed seminars up to recent times. He attended many conferences and contributed his continuing research to a number of them.

In 1995 he recieved the Ananda Coomaraswamy Medal from the Geological Society of Sri Lanka for "Outstanding Contributions to the Geology of Sri Lanka" and delivered the Memorial Oration 'The Charnokite Enigma'.

Robin gave of his time and cpacities in many other ways. The door of his room was always open to ant student, staff member or visitor, who might wish to discuss a problem. He sought out, chatted with and discussed work with all scientists passing through the department.

For many years he was Chief Examiner in Matriculation geology for the schools S.A. Public Examinations Board. He was a member of the Geological Society of Australia and served as a committee member of the State Division for many years, and was chairman on two occasions. He was a member of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and also the Royal Society of South Australia. He served as committee member and in executive positions for both the Adelaide University Staff Association and The Adelaide University Staff Club. In later years he gave of his time to give lectures to, and take field excursions for both The University of the Third Age and The Field Geology Club. Recently he was an important contributor to the new book "Records and Reminiscences", on the history of the Univerity of Adelaide's Geology Department.

Robin loved interacting with students outside of the academic arena. He was 75 before he ceased fronting up for matches of cricket, squash ot tennis and (once) building abseiling. He also enjoyed hiking, social tennis and fermenting his own apple cider. He was often forgetful and stories about this are legendary.

The Oliver's home has been open many times for the gathering of friends and students. It has been a haven for many out of Adelaide visitors, particularly geologists, and especially if they had Antarctic interests.

Robin's gregarious nature has resulted in numerous close friends and acquaintances, of all ages, locally and throughout the world. The common message coming from these, both old and young, is that: "he was a lovely person".

He is survived by his wife Helen, daughter Suzie, and four grandchildren.

TAG #118, March 2001

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Virginia Louise PASSMORE

Felllow of the Geological Society of Australia

My interest in geology was first awakened when I took an undergraduate elective course in geology, after which I changed my major to geology and transferred to the University of Arizona in Tucson to pursue arid land hydrology. The mathematics required for hydrology quickly convinced me that stratigraphy and sedimentary rocks were where my real interest lay. I obtained a BSc with distinction in Geology, then worked for Texaco Inc. at their Billings, Montana office for two years as an exploration geologist in the Williston Basin. I also undertook short-term work with the US Geological Survey in Wyoming and for the Arizona Bureau of Mines, before returning to the University of Arizona to complete a MSc in Stratigraphy and Sedimentation with a thesis on the subsurface geology in central Arizona.

Following immigration to Australia in 1971, I briefly worked for Kennecott Copper before joining the Petroleum Branch of the Bureau of Mineral Resources in late 1971 to undertake basin analysis and hydrocarbon assessments of a number of Australian Basins, including the Adavale, Bonaparte, Carpentaria, Canning, Darling, Eromanga and Galilee Basins. I also worked on Australia's contribution to the ESCAP Atlas of Stratigraphy, part of the IGCP Project 32. My branch was transferred to the Bureau of Resource Sciences on its formation in 1992 and renamed the Petroleum Resources Branch. I worked there as a Senior Petroleum Geologist on hydrocarbon prospectivity packages that reviewed the hydrocarbon plays and potential of offshore basins to assist the Offshore Acreage Releases and also provided technical advice to government. In 1999 we rejoined AGSO (now GA) where I continued working on Australia sedimentary basins until retirement in 2001. Highlights of my work include winning the Harold Raggatt Award in 1984 for my work on the Central Eromanga Basin and its infra-basins and the opportunity to describe and name a new basin, the Bamaga Basin that underlies the offshore Carpentaria Basin.

I am a Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia, and during and following my working life was active in both the Geological Society of Australia (GSA) and the Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia (PESA). I have held numerous positions at the Branch and Federal level of both organisations including Federal Treasurer of PESA, Federal Secretary of GSA, Chairman of the Commonwealth Territories Division, and Branch Treasurer for seven consecutive years, a record within the Commonwealth Territories Division of GSA.

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Felllow of the Geological Society of Australia

I was born at Booleroo Centre, South Australia, on March 7th 1925.  After primary schooling at one-teacher country schools near Booleroo Centre and later (from 1936) at Propect Hill, I attended Adelaide Technical High School during 1938 – 1940 and Adelaide University during 1941 – 1944.  At Adelaide University I studied engineering (specialty metallurgy), took the wartime interim BSc (Eng) in 1943 and the BE in 1945.  During 1944 I was a part-time tutor in the Department of Mathematics.

During 1945 and 1946 I was employed as an assistant research officer in the Division of Aeronautics of CSIR, Fisherman’s Bend, Melbourne, engaged in work on fatigue of metals.  In 1947 I proceeded to the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, where I worked for my PhD under the supervision of Dr Egon Orowan FRS, on X-ray diffraction studies, finishing in June 1949.  After a year back in what was now the Aeronautical Research Laboratories, I spent a year (1950/1951) in the Institute for the Study of Metals as a postdoctoral researcher on further X-ray diffraction problems, and then returned to the Aeronautical Research Laboratories again.

In June 1953 I took up an appointment as a Senior Research Fellow, later Reader, in the Department of Geophysics of the Research School of Physical Sciences at the Australian National University, Canberra.  This department became the Research School of Earth Sciences in 1973. I was appointed as Professor in 1986 and retired in 1990.  After 1990, I continued my association with the School as a Visiting Fellow and Emeritus Professor.  During my years at the Australian National University I was engaged in research on the plastic deformation of rocks.  The high pressure apparatus that I developed for that research was later commercialised and I spent most of my retirement involved in its manufacture and marketing, later in association with Australian Scientific Instruments Pty Ltd.

I have published over 100 research papers and a book (Experimental Rock Deformation; The Brittle Field; 1978; 2nd edition with T-f Wong as co-author, 2005) and have completed another book (Materials Science for Structural Geology).  I was elected as a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 1972 and am a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the Mineralogical Society of America, and the Geological Society of Australia and am an Honorary Fellow of the Geological Society of America.


Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

John Perry attended the University of Queensland in 1946 - 1948, and retains fond memories of Geology Department staff members Professor W.H Bryan, Dr. Dorothy Hill, Dr. Freddy Whitehouse and Dr Owen Jones; this study was facilitated by the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme, after nearly four years service in the RAAF.
(What did you do in the war, Daddy? How did you help us to win? Circuits and bumps and turns, laddie, and how to get out of a spin!)

In 1949 he joined the Commonwealth Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), and began duty with the sedimentary section field mapping in the Carnarvon Basin , WA (Cape n Range) and adjacent regions, plus detailed work in the NSW coal fields aimed at indicating areas suitable for open-cut coal mining; he also worked on local projects in the A.C.T. and on the geology of the Commonwealth Territory of Jervis Bay.

This was followed by two and a half years in Papua New Guinea, first relieving the Resident Geologist in Port Moresby and then the Resident Geologist in Wau, the centre for the Edie Creek and Koranga alluvial gold areas and the New Guinea Gold underground mine. This posting also involved working with a company geologist field mapping in the Upper Sepik/August River part of ñ the then Mandated Territory of New Guinea adjacent to the border with Dutch New Guinea.

After returnng to Australia he carried out further regional mapping in the Carnarvon Basin, then was assigned to geological map editing.

In 1960 he was sent to the USA, UK and the Netherlands (Royal Dutch Shell) to study the application of aerial photography to geological mapping.

At this time, BMR contracted a mission from the French Institute of Petroleum (IFP) to study petroleum prospects in Australia. The mission included a senior petroleum geologist, geophysicists and photogeologists. Perry worked with the mission for three years until BMR moved into a new building on Constitution Avenue and established an "in-house" photogeological section and associated drawing office.

The section produced photogeological maps and reports in support of the 1:250,000 scale geological mapping program. It also ran short training courses "in-house" for field geologists, and, during the next several years, with collaboration from specialists from CSIRO and Industry, provided occasional courses for the Australian Mineral Foundation, first in photogeology and later in the application of remote sensing generally to geological mapping and mineral exploration.

During the late 60s and early 70s he was involved in experimental colour air-photography for geological mapping; BMR later adopted colour aerial photography for its 1:100,000 scale mapping program. He also worked on the application of false-colour infra-red photography to the identification of leaks from irrigation channels in Northern Victoria, thermal infra-red imaging in the Bowen Basin and of the Rabaul caldera in PNG. Ongoing activities included summarising data from Petroleum Search Subsidy Act Reports for storage in a retrieval system. He was also much involved in BMR's role in organising AustraliaÕs response to NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite program and to later projects including ERTSB, Skylab and Shuttle Imaging Radar. (ERTS-1 was launched in1972).

He was understudy to Sandy Renwick, the Secretary General of the 25th International Geological Congress in Sydney in 1976.

He collaborated with members of the Palaentology Group in BMR in a pilot study of the Oligicine Period in Australia, then took part, mainly administratively, in the Murray Basin Hydrological Program which resulted in the publication of a geological map and accompanying bulletin. Further administrative work followed, particularly relating to Division finances, and he retired in 1986.

Work after retirement included a remote sensing project for BMR, and technical editing for BMR and for CCOP/SOPAC (Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in South Pacific Offshore Areas) in Suva, Fiji.

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Graeme Maxwell, PHILIP

1933 – 2009
Graeme Philip died on 11 June, 2009, after a long battle with cancer. He was given a fond farewell by family,
friends and former colleagues. Born in Ballarat, Victoria, younger son of Percival and Ruth Philip on 17 November
1933, the family moved to Foster (Gippsland), then to Melbourne in 1939. It was a strict Methodist upbringing and
the family home was imbued with the best values of the non-conformist church of their day: 'profound respect for
learning, but none for empty show; constant striving for understanding, but none for power over others; enjoyment
of work well done, but not the pursuit of money; the supremacy of ideas, not possessions'. As Graeme's son
remarked in his eulogy 'while Dad may not have had strong views on the Church itself, he certainly followed
these values throughout his life'.

Even when young Graeme suffered in relation to his extremely gifted elder brother, John who graduated from the
University of Melbourne in his teens. When it was found that Graeme's problem was extremely poor vision,
he was instantly transformed by the thickest possible glasses, from the 'family fool' to the 'mad professor'
look, which he loved to cultivate.

Graeme's geology life took off at Melbourne Boys' High where he topped the State in his final year. Beginning at
Melbourne University in 1952, he did well in Geology, but poorly in Chemistry and Mathematics, but gained a B.Sc
and then M.Sc by 1959. Like many students from a strict background he had some wild episodes. Despite his
improved vision through thick glasses 'travel with him at the wheel was intermittently hazardous...' as the
palaeontologist, John Talent remarks, he managed to write off at least one car during this period, and later,
students at a Tamworth excursion voted him off driving the bus.

His first major research work was on the Siluro-Devonian stratigraphy and palaeontology of the Tyers River
area in east Gippsland, which he first visited with Talent. In 1958 he married fellow student Judy Sullivan,
who later became Registrar at the University of Adelaide. Their first child, Michael, was born in Melbourne.
Awarded a CSIRO Scholarship they moved to Cambridge, where Graeme gained a PhD on Tertiary fossil
echinoids of Victoria, and where two more children (Susan & Timothy) were born. Here he encountered some
of the eccentricities of English life which delighted him, and to which he enjoyed returning on occasional brief
visits in later years. Some of his exploits are delightfully recounted in notes at the back of his Bradman book
he published in 2004.

Appointed lecturer at New England University, Armidale, in 1962, promotion occurred rapidly, and by 1966
he was a full Professor and Head of Department. In 1968 he also became Dean of Science and was recognised
by the University of Melbourne with the award of a D.Sc for his palaeontological studies. A major achievement
of his time at the University of New England from (1962 to 1971) was to establish a framework for the Early
and Middle Devonian biostratigraphy of eastern Australia. Graeme worked on conodonts. These organisms
were rapidly evolving, so individual species had a short time range while they had worldwide distribution.
His main collaborator was Alan Pedder who studied the coral faunas, building on the pioneering work of
Dorothy Hill at Queensland University. Graeme took sabbatical leave in 1972 working in Iowa with Gilbert
Klapper, determining true taxonomic genera of the Devonian conodonts.

Graeme moved to Sydney University in 1972 succeeding Charles Marshall as Edgeworth David Professor.
The move to Sydney made him many friends and some detractors and coincided with divorce from Judy.
At Sydney University his main research interest centred on the application of mathematical and statistical
methods to geological problems both academic and applied to resource assessment. One of his collaborators
was David Watson.

Graeme effected many important changes in the Sydney Department. They included the practical introduction
of marine sciences, following Marshall having had the idea approved in principle. This led later to the formation
of a Marine Science Centre, co-ordinating Marine research within the University and linking with other academic
and government bodies. His formation of the Earth Sciences Foundation, based in part on the successful Physics
School Foundation set up by the entrepreneurial Harry Messel, brought the mining and engineering Industries
more effectively in contact with Academia, and numerous interesting applied research projects were undertaken,
including a Federally-funded 'Experimental seismic reflection investigation of coal', (with researchers David King
and Stewart Greenhalgh). A distinguished Lecturer Series (with workshops) was instigated, bringing many top-flight
(and even some controversial) speakers to the Department, and then on to other Australian venues. Of particular
significance was the introduction of study-funding for students from beginning classes to post-graduate, sponsored
by Industry members of the Foundation.
Graeme had a feeling for history and with the enthusiastic support of graduates set up the Edgeworth David Society
to link the Department's alumni through the occasional social function and, later, an Edgeworth David day of lectures
with invited speakers.

Graeme was President of the Geological Society of Australia, 1975 – 1977, covering the extremely busy years
of preparation, the event (and mopping up) of the 25th International Geological Congress, held in Sydney (at the University)
in August 1976. The event called for a considerable amount of organization/co-ordination within the University and
the geological community. The only blemish that might be mentioned is that for the welcoming reception held in the
University's Great Hall Graeme opened the alcoholic floodgates rather early, which caused a decided haze during
later proceedings!
He took much-needed leave in 1977, visiting academic institutions in India, USA and Europe trying to set up co-operative
research, while undertaking his own research on echinoids at Cambridge. However his enthusiasm for overseas and
joint projects, while supported by some staff members, did not enthuse others.

A dedicated Departmental Field Station, for which Graeme worked hard, never came to fruition, but his enthusiasm
for field excursions was marked by the introduction of interstate and overseas excursions, the first of many being
to New Zealand in 1973. About this year Graeme married Kay Sheahan, a research physicist. They had a daughter,
Nicola, and a son, Richard, but were divorced in the late 1980s.

Palaeontology remained on his agenda and he was deeply involved in the setting up of the Association of the Australasian
Palaeontologists and establishment of the international palaeontology journal, Alcheringa, which is now in its 32nd year
of publication.

Although administrative matters kept him busy, particularly in his later years at Sydney he did his stint of teaching
and managed research whenever possible. In the circumstances his research was quite considerable, with some 113
publications, mainly in palaeontology, but also in environment, data analysis and computational geometry. Although
this did not compare with his brother John's more than 300, Graeme would probably have maintained that his were
three times as good!
With his administrative abilities, when he moved to Sydney perhaps he had in mind the possibility of a
Vice-Chancellorship in due course, but this was not to be. He took early retirement in 1987, partly disillusioned
by changes which reduced the powers of professors and of the Professorial Board. He had certainly become
disillusioned with what he regarded as unco-operative bureaucrats within the University, who did not answer letters
or make decisions on necessary staff and secretarial appointments.

When he took early retirement in 1987 Graeme turned his mind and activity to biological problems which intrigued
him, notably the commercial development of bio-pesticides, particularly for curing diseases in bananas. Nematode
worms attack the roots of bananas, and could be controlled by introducing a fungus. This turned out to be a difficult
process, involving finding collaborators who could produce the spores, package them and try to ensure their viability.
When it came to field testing Graeme's statistical interests came to the fore. In this project Graeme was encouraged,
and partly funded by a group of friends, and he carried out considerable research in the Philippines. The slow process
of development came to economic fruition when cancer struck. Graeme grew to love the Philippines,and in 1994 married
Mercedita Yango there.

Graeme had a great fondness for cricket and was an elegant left-hand batsman, enjoying the matches against teams
from Geology at UNSW, when geology was in favour. It partly led to Graeme writing a book (published in 2004) entitled
Bradman: Master Ball-Player. (dedicated to a 'cricket tragic: his brother John killed in a car accident in Amsterdam in 1999).
Graeme himself was a cricket tragic. Test cricket for him was the only real cricket. He set about to determine how good
a batsman "the Don" really was. The result was his book, guided to publication by Robyn Stutchbury and funded by his
friend, David King.

Though sub-titled Cricket Statistics revisited, it is much more than that. Graeme used his statistical skills (which must
have improved since his early problems with mathematics and statistics during his undergraduate studies) to compare
the batting averages of players during, before and after, Bradman's time at the crease. It happened that the famous
evolutionary scientist/historian, Stephen Jay Gould, was a baseball tragic, and in his book Full house: the spread of
excellence from Plato to Darwin
, published in 1996, he discussed baseball batting averages. Graeme found Gould's
statistical methodology wanting. To some extent writing the book arose from Graeme's disagreement with Gould, who
used what Graeme recognised as 'dodgy data' on baseball home run statistics to support his theory of 'performance
variation' in evolutionary biology.

In the series of delightful anecdotal notes in Graeme's book he described his encounter with Gould at a Geological Society
of America meeting in Boulder Colorado in 1972. Graeme had been involved with Gould in correspondence and in a
published discussion of the statistical aspects of the evolution of the Jurassic oyster Gryphea. They had a difference of
opinion. When he rose at question time after Gould had delivered his paper, actually to compliment him, Graeme was at
the receiving end of an outburst of antagonism such as Gould was noted for. Gould died in 2002 as Graeme was finishing
the draft of his Bradman book. Nevertheless Graeme lamented his passing.

The Notes to the various chapters of this book reveal fascinating snippets of Graeme's life, his sharp mind, and particularly
his sense of humour.
He ended his book by expressing 'eternal gratitude to my loving and long-suffering wife, Mercedita.  A Memorial Garden,
commemorating Graeme has been established in the Philippines. Here his ashes were scattered.
Graeme could be prickly at times. He did not suffer fools too kindly, but there was an inherent kindness and courtesy
about him and a sense of history, as instanced in his celebration at the University of the 90th birthday of Edgeworth David's

He was a first class scientist who didn't cut corners or use spin. He enjoyed good food, good drink and company, sometimes too well. His achievements for the geological profession, both in his work places and in the wider community were significant, and ensure he will be long remembered and honoured.
'He cultivated the image of a grandiose, unsung genius which, in many ways, he was... The profession has become colourless without him,' wrote John Talent.

David  Branagan, Gordon Packham, Robyn Stutchbury

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Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia

Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia

Phil Playford was born and grew up in Western Australia. He holds B.Sc. (1st class Honours) and Honorary D.Sc. degrees in geology from UWA and a Ph.D. from Stanford. His career has been with Government and the oil-exploration industry, and he is a former Director of the Geological Survey of WA. Honours received include: Lewis G Weeks Gold Medal of APPREA, Gibb Maitland Medal of GSA, Medal of the Royal Society of WA, Special Commendation Award of the AAPG, WA Premier's Book Award, Distinguished Member of PESA, Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, Honorary Member of the National Trust (WA), and Member of the Order of Australia (AM) for services to geology and history. He is currently an Honorary Associate of the Geological Survey and the WA museum.

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Christopher McAulay POWELL

1943 - 2001

Professor Chris Powell collapsed and passed away on 21 July 2001, on a flight from Johannesburg to London. The shockwave of his death soon spread to every corner of the world. At the age of 58, Chris was so energetic, active and full of ideas and enthusiasm, that his loss to the scientific community will be felt for years to come.

Chris started his extraordinary career as a stuctural geoogist. Receiving his BSc degree with First-Class Honours from the University of Queensland, he went on to do a PhD at the University of Tasmania under the supervision of the legendary Professor S.W. Carey during the latter half of the 1960s. Carey's prominent role in the development of the plate tectonics theory inspired Chris' interest in global tectonics. During the three years when he worked first as a NASA Post-Doctoral Fellow at Northwestern University, and later as an Assistant Professor at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, he not only honed his skills in structural analysis in field regions like Montana and the Appalachians, but also met and married his wife Rosemarie in Chicago. Chris' major contribution to structural geology is in the origin of natural rock fabrics, as seen in the co-authored book "Atlas on Deformational and Metamorphic Rock Fabrics" (Borradaile et al., Springer-Verlag, 1982).

Chris' knowledgeable views on tectonics were first demonstrated during his studies related to the Himalaya and the uplift of Tibet. Soon after he started his teaching career at Macquarie University in Sydney, he and his colleagues carried out two major expeditions to the Himalaya. This, and successive work. led him to develop the idea that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau was not a direct result of a continent-collision, as was widely believed. Rather, he and Conoghan in 1973 suggested that this was due to the underthrusting of the Indian continental crust beneath the Euarasian crust. In a 1986 paper, Chris modified the model from continental underthrusting to continental underplating, which better explains the rather late (>5 Ma) and rapid uplift of Tibet. Related to this model is the speculation by Chris and his Macquarie colleagues of a Greater India before the continental collision. Until his death, Chris was engaged in research testing the timing of the Tibetan uplift and its implications for environmental changes.

During the 80s, Chris, together with J.J. Veevers, B.D. Johnson and others in the "Australian Plate Research Group" at Macquarie, developed a research program on the history of Gondwanaland and the Indian Ocean, which led them to a revised fit of Gondwanaland that is different from the popular Smith and Hallam (1970) fit. It was also during that time that I first started to study under the supervision of, and later work with, Chris on the tectonic evolution of Australia, Gondwanaland and East Asia, with particular emphasis on palaeomagnetism.

After spending 20 years at Macquarie University, moving up the ranks from Lecturer to Associate Professor and Head of the School of Earth Sciences, Chris made a career move to become the Professor of Geology and the Head of the Geology Department at The University of Western Australia in Perth. It was from there that Chris started championing the Rodinia-related research. His scientific leadership in this field is demonstrated not only by the many papers he and co-workers published and the numerous keynote addresses he delivered on the topic, but also through the outstanding role he played in proposing, and energetically leading, the IGCP 440 project: Rodinia Assembly and Breakup. He led over 300 scientists from all over the world participating in this project. The Tectonics Special Research Centre, of which he was the Director, stands as the symbol of Chris' dynamism and outstanding vision.

Chris was a gifted scientist with many talents, who had a remarkable ability to visualize global processes from outcrop-scale to regional observations. During his career he published about 140 articles and chapters in refereed journals and books. His scientific contributions are spread over a wide spectrum of fields; from rock fabrics, the uplift of Tibet, global tectonics and supercontinent evolution, to the palaeogeographic history of the Lachlan Fold Belt, the idea of mega-kinking related to global orogenesis, basin history of Australia and the Panthalassan margin of Gondwanaland, genesis of the iron ore deposits in the Pilbara, and regional tectonics of many parts of the world, to mention a few. His exemplary talent and outstanding achievements are recognized worldwide. Amongst the awards he recieved was the prestigious Mawson Medal from the Australian Academy of Sciences in 2000.

Chris' connection to the Earth, his ingenuity, and his work ethic started from childhood. He was born in the U.K. and migrated to Australia when he was five, and grew up in a remote farm in central Queensland where the only schooling that was available to him was through correspondence. His superb bush skills impressed and benefited many of those who camped with him in the field.

Chris will be remembered not only was an outstanding scientist, a leader, a man of passion, enthusiasm and boundless energy, but to many also as a forthright and generous friend, to his students an inspiring and patient teacher, to his family a loving husband and father.

Chris enjoyed spending time in the field, be it in the high Tibet, the dry and barren Central Australia and the Tarim Basin, the remote and sometimes dangerous eastern Madagascar, or central and southern Africa. He died after having participated in a successful field excursion in South Africa, on his way to attend a field symposium in Irkutsk. He was looking forward to seeing Siberia for the first time.

Chris left behind his wife Rosemarie, three adult children, many friends who will miss him dearly, and a worldwide reputation.

Z.X. LI, Tectonics Special Research Centre, Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Western Australia
TAG #120, September 2002

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Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia
Honorary Member of the Geological Society of Australia

1910 - 2005

Professor Rex Tregilgas Prider was born on 22 September 1910 in Narrogin, Western Australia, and died in Perth aged ninety-five on 6 October 2005. He won entrance to Bunbury High School, and went on to the University of Western Australia (UWA), where he majored with First Class Honours in geology. He graduated during the Great Depression when work was difficult to get, and became Assistant Surveyor on the South Kalgurli Goldmine in 1932. He returned to University in 1934 to become Assistant Lecturer under Professor E de Clarke, for whom he maintained a lifelong friendship and respect. During 1937-38 he was a Hackett Research Student at Cambridge supervised by Prof C E Tilley, where he was awarded a PhD for his research on leucite lamproites from the Canning Basin of Western Australia. He lectured at UWA from 1939-1948 while carrying out a busy program of petrological research, and succeeded Clarke as professor, a position he held from 1949-1975.

Professor Prider was co-author of two elementary geological texts, edited a book on mining in Western Australia, and published thirty-eight papers in peer-assessed scientific journals. Much of his research was on Precambrian rocks in the Yilgarn Craton, but he was probably best known internationally for his work on the leucite lamproites of the northern Canning Basin, which he bgan in 1937. His 1960 paper in the Journal of the Geological Society of Australia emphasised the remarkable similarity of the lamproites in chemistry and mode of formation to kimberlites, then the only known igneous host-rocks of diamonds. The paper thus implied the possibility of economic diamond occurrences in the Kimberley region.

Publication of the 1960 paper had followed an unusual path because it was, curiously, rejected initially by the Society as being of local interest only. Later, having become President, he was asked to submit a Presidential Address for publication, and he posted off virtually the same paper. Scientific societies do not normally reject Presidential Address, and the paper was published fairly quickly, and soon led to considerable interest and fieldwork in the Kimberley area. Some twenty-five years later, mining of diamonds in lamproite began at the giant Argyle mine. In 1986, when the Fourth International Kimberlite Conference was held in Perth, the then emeritus professor was a special guest at the conference. He was enthusiastically applauded for his 1960 contribution, which had been transformed in status from a rejected manuscript to a benchmark paper in the field.

Prider was a hands-on professor who made a point of lecturing to first-year students and supervising laboratory classes. He had a remarkable memory for students, and maintained that fieldwork both revealed and formed their character. He ran rigorous and Spartan geological field camps for senior students during which they almost invariably lived under canvas. An unpretentious man, he never lost his pronounced regional Australian accent, and had a sense of humour that flourished the field. He was easily approachable to students and was a source of common-sense advice to them.

Prof Prider was an enthusiastic and supportive member of the Royal Society of Western Australia, of which he was President in 1944-45 and 1959-60. He was awarded the Society's medal in 1970. When Australian geologists decided to form a national Geological Society, he became inaugural chairman of the Western Australian Division (1952), and later Federal President (1958-59). He was also Federal President of the Gemmological Association of Australia (1967-70), and assisted the Western Australian branch to develop by allowing it to use Departmental facilities for its lectures and laboratory work. He encouraged senior students to join all three bodies. The Prider Medal, a gold medal presented each year to the Honours student showing the greatest aptitude for research, is given in his honour. In addition, the mineral priderite, first identified in rock from the Wolgidee Hills in the Canning Basin, and the Cretaceous fossil Anomia prideri, from the Gingin area, are named after him.

Rex Prider married Catherine Esther Walton in 1936, and they had two children, son Rodney and daughter Bobbie. A devoted family man, the last years of his life were saddened by the premature death of Rodney, an outstanding classics scholar, and shortly after in 2000, of Mrs Prider. Late in his life, in 2004, he was awarded the Chancellor's Medal of the University of Western Australia. It was presented partly in recognition of the personal help that he and Mrs Prider gave throughout his long career at UWA to enable Asian students to integrate successfully into university life. To the end he retained the respect and friendship of fellow staff members and a large group of former students who had come under his influence.

Dr. J Glover, University of Western Australia.
TAG #137, December 2005

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John Herbert RATTIGAN

Foundation Member of the Geological Society of Australia
Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia

In my senior years in Chemistry at Adelaide University I was diverted to geology by the inspiration and example of Sir Douglas Mawson.

Mawson taught careful field observation and supporting laboratory research "to strive, to seek, to find and not to yield" in attaining scientific goals. About him were staff including C. T Madigan, postgraduate students Ben Dickinson, Reg Sprigg and Alec Whittle and fellow students Don King, Keith Johns and those I tutored such as Peter Howard and Joe Harris.

From these people, all of whom became significant discoverers or administrators, much rubbed off. From Mawson I learned petrological technique for hard rocks and into find the basement in Sedimentary Basin studies and do cross-sections downdip into the basin. From Reg. Sprigg I learned to identify a marker and follow it along strike to elucidate structure. Simple things but seemingly foreign to many new geologists.

After graduation with the University's Tate Medal my rejection of his offers to recommend academic posts, international scholarships or appointments with Antarctic expeditions caused Mawson to recommended employment with the new Federal Bureau of Mineral Resources. The objectives of that body were closer to my interest.

At the Bureau there was considerable freedom in pursuing geological studies. First with the Petroleum Section I enjoyed basin studies including those relating to the Devonian reefs of Kimberley. I had a role of guide to the original "Four Man Party" from Standard of California and Texas Company that led to the formation of WAPET and eventually to significant discoveries of oil and gas in WA. Later this role led to a party chief role with WAPET (now Chevron) selecting deep well sites.

In 1953 as BMR I had a role of field party organisation and systemic mapping in uranium exploration, NT leading to small discoveries that sparked a later boom and eventually significant deposits in the Arnhem Land region. I was recruited by Rio Tinto Company (UK) for an Australian arm (RTAE) firstly on uranium including office analysis of ore reserves of Mary Kathleen.

Later I was involved in Rio "firsts" in Australia in exploration on new forms of title large enough to protect private geophysical and geochemical data.

I returned to academic life at U.NSW, Newcastle and a visiting professorship at University of California. Previously exploration involved remote assignment or constantly travelling management roles. The more settled academic life gave opportunity to publish and be active in the Geological Society which I had joined at foundation. I was an office bearer and president of the local Branch and member of various committees. I published on diverse topics internationally including compilations for Pakham's Geology of NSW. Such work continued with the editing and writing for the Monograph 17 of the AIMM, a Bicentenary volume of history of Australian mineral discovery. That volume stressed that there are indeed many fathers to a successful mineral discovery.

I returned to industry with Texas Instruments and later for CSR Limited as Chief Geologist, Exploration Manager and latterly Director of Exploration subsidiaries. I retired when CSR telegraphed its intent to abandon resource diversification and began the disposal of production interests (Mt Bewman, PT Koba Tin, Kalgoorlie and Sumatra Gold, Cooper Basin and Queensland oil and gas, NSW, WA and Queensland coal, Mt Gunson Copper) and development properties of some substance (Yandicoogina iron, WA aluminium, gold and copper). In all of these I played some part in consulting on feasibility of Greenfield projects or expansions of operations but am particularly proud of managing teams leading to deposit discovery and delineation. Amongst these were recognition of the immensity of the Yandicoogina iron deposits of WA, the Cattlegrid Copper that rejuvenated exploration leading to major discoveries on Stuart Shelf and the feasibility of a cluster of tin mines in Indonesia.

After many years as a geologist I was granted the Fellowship of the Geological Society, the AIMM and several academic bodies. I am particularly proud of the practical discovery and development achievements of the staff of major companies with which I worked and of participating in the Raggatt BMR strategy of striving to find self sufficiency and export potential – the "mountains of ore" and oil to bring Australia's development to maturity – particularly important when we were cast adrift (with the protection of our then dominant rural exports removed) on the formation of the European Union.

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Born 14 April 1936, Monto, Queensland;  Rockhampton Grammar School;  married;  two children.
B.Sc. (First Class Honours) (New England) 1960.
Ph.D. (New England) 1964.  Broken Hill research under the supervision of Prof. R. L. Stanton AO.
Distinguished Alumnus (New England) 1995.
Fellow, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy  –
Institute Medal 2000 , the citation reads
“For leadership in research and technology in the Australian minerals industry over a forty
year career encompassing outstanding research and commercial achievement and especially
for unstinting and visionary support for Australian science and technology organizations.”
Fellow, Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, 1996 
Fellow, Geological Society of Australia 2007.
D.Univ. (University of South Australia) 1997.
Centenary Medal.
Member, Order of Australia, 2008;  the citation reads
“For service to geological science in the areas of mineral exploration, mining and scientific
research and through contributions to industry, the public sector and professional
1963 - 64 CSIRO Mineragraphic Section.
1964 - 76  1964 Stanford University on a CSIRO Postdoctoral Scholarship; 
Mineral exploration 1965 – 1976 with Cominco Ltd in Canada, Australia and S.E.Asia.
1976 - 1998 ABERFOYLE LTD:  1977 General Manager, Exploration and Development;
1984 Managing Director, retiring 1995;  1994 Chairman, retiring 1998;  team
discovered and brought into production further Sn resources, new Pb/Zn/Ag ore
deposits at Que River and Hellyer;  Au at Bardoc;  Cu in Gunpowder extensions.
While Managing Director, was at various times on the Boards of the Australian Mining
Industry Council (Chair, Science and Technology Committee);  Australian Minerals Industry
Research Association (President 1989 - 91;  1997 - 2000).
Australian Mines and Metals Association.
1993, Chair, Review of the Australian Geological Survey Organization.
1991-1997, Member, CSIRO Board.
1996-2001, Chairman, ANSTO Board.
1998-2000, Member, North Ltd Board.
1990-2000, Member, Bligh Oil & Minerals NL Board.
1995-2011, Chairman, School of Botany Foundation, University of Melbourne.
1996-2011, Chairman, Advisory Board, Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia.


Michael John RICKARD

Fellow of the Geological Society of Australia
Honorary Member of the Geological Society of Australia

Significant Career highlights:
i) 1957 PhD from Imperial College London, field work in Donegal, Eire, supervised by Profs W.S. Pitcher and H.H. Read.
ii) 1957-60 Post Doctoral Fellow McGill University, field work in Canadian Appalachians.
iii) 1960-63 Geological Survey Fiji.
iv) Appointed to Geology Department ANU 1963; promoted to Reader 1974; Head of Department (1980-82 & 1988-93). Deputy Dean Science Faculty 1991-94; University Marshall 1992-97. Retired 1997.
v) 1969 Expedition to test Patagonian orocline, Tierra del Fuego, South America.
vi) 1976 Field mapping in Norway (International Geodynamics project).

Geodynamics project structural cross section Wagga to Batemans Bay NSW.
Research on structure of several orogenic belts, especially early work on dating of cleavages. Work on spacing of plutons.
Produced 7 regional geological maps.

Inspired to take up geology by early high school contact with Kingston Polytechnic Surrey, UK, and desire to work outdoors.

Expertise in Tectonics and Structural Geology.

GSA participation
Chair CT Divs 1975
Secretary GSA 1971-73
President GSA 1983-4
Executive Secretary GSA Tectonic Map Committee 1963-71
GSA Public Officer 1977-82
Deputy Chair Tasmanide Tectonic Map Committee 1983-92
GSA Representative on Geoscience Council 1983-84

Chair WG9 Geodynamics Conference, Canberra 1984. Convener 9^th International Basement Tectonics meeting Canberra 1990.

Committee member: 3rd Gondwana Symposium 1971-73; 12th International Sedimentary Congress 1984-86; GSA 13th Convention Canberra 1994-96.

Derived pleasure in communicating with other geologists on international basis.

Some 40 papers and 5 Bulletins, 10 technical reports and 20 book reviews or discussions. Joint Editor Basement Tectonics 9. (Kluwer).

Fellow GSA 1995
Honorary Fellow GSA 1995
A.B.Edwards Medal 1996.

W.W.Watts Medal in Geology 1954
Nuffield-Royal Society Travel Bursary to UK 1969
French Government (CIES) Bursary to Montpellier 1982.

ARC grants 1967 to South America; 1978 NSW crossection. 1994 Infra red survey Taemas NSW.

Australian IGCP grants1988 to China; 1991 to Chile

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Elizabeth Arnold RIPPER

1909 - 2004

'Betty' Ripper was born in Melbourne on the 7th September 1909. With her interest aroused in geology at Melbourne High School, she went to take her undergraduate training in Geology at the University of Melbourne from 1928 to 1931, gaining a MSc in 1932. Her contributions to Australian geology and palaeontology were on Ordovician and Silurian graptolites and Lower Devonian stromatoporoids for her MSc, which was published in 1933. From 1933 to 1936 she was a non-resident student at Newham College, Cambridge University, contemporary with her friend, Dorothy Hill. She pursued her PhD under Dr Gertude L. Elles at the Sedgwick Museum (part of the Dept. of Earth Sciences) and working with graptolite worker, Dr O.M.B. Bulman. Further papers were published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria in the 1930s including her pioneer studies of the Victorian Lower Devonian stromatoporoid assemblages.

In 1937, Betty returned to Britain and married and had two children, living in London for the rest of her life. Her husband Stanley C.H. Holmes (Trinity Coll. Cambridge) then of the Geological Survey (G.B.) whom she had met at the Sedgwick Museum, was a Fellow of the Geological Society of London and Betty a member of the Geological Association. She did not manage to find a job or research funds, however, and never returned to Australia. She died in June after a short illness.

A longer memorial is in preparation.

TAG #133, December 2004

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